house of commons house of lords local government ministry

Local government and the evolution within

The Anglo-Saxon system of Local Government, which has a great popularity all over a world, has arisen in the UK. The most important feature of local government organization in the UK can be considered traditional distinctions between different areas. Local government in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is governed by separate regulations and differ by parameters such as the administrative division, power of governing bodies and even the public authorities : in the UK it is the Ministry (Department) of the environment, regional and local government, the rest of them- elective Assembly (Parliament). The United Kingdom has no written constitution. However, there is a historically formed system of norms, which regulate the relationship quite effectively.

It is like an although these provisions are contained in different sources of law.One feature of the constitutional status in the UK is an absence of systematic exposition of its rights, freedoms and responsibilities. They are established and regulated by statutes, precedents, customs. Therefore, in the UK big attention is focused on ensuring effective protection of rights and freedoms, especially the judiciary. Scotland has always had its own legal and judicial system, but a few centuries did not have autonomy in governance. However, on 11 September 1997 in Scotland, it was a referendum which as a result of was expanding the independence of Scotland. After the referendum, the relevant law was adopted in 1998. As a result of the elections were held in the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Parliament has legislative powers on economic development, taxes, housing, agriculture and forestry, fisheries, environment, health, education, social welfare and so on.

Other powers are the responsibility of the British Parliament. Executive power is exercised by the Scottish Government, formed on the same principles and in the same relationship with Parliament. For Wales, the legal and judicial autonomy has the less importance than for Scotland. The main executive body of the autonomous is Wales Assembly. It is not provided with legislative power, but it has no right of broad interpretation of laws, adopted by the British Parliament, in relation to health, housing, education and a number of others. Until 1972, Northern Ireland had its own parliament. The autonomy, due to the exacerbation of political conflict, was cancelled till 1988, agreements were reached in Belfast. The Assembly was elected and the executive body formed with the appropriate authority.

The First Minister and his deputy are elected together, which makes the political parties act agreed. The highest executive body of Northern Ireland is based on the parties’ representation on the d’Hondt formula. As for England, it is currently divided geographically into 4 regions .After the reforms in 1990 in Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales only England remains the only one of the components of the UK, not having its own parliament and government. Parliament functions of England implement the UK Parliament, the functions of government – the government of the United Kingdom. The British Parliament is a classic example of the so-called ‘Westminster model” and consists of two Houses – the House of Commons and House of Lords, as well as being an integral part of the monarch.

The House of Commons is elected for five years on the basis of a relative majority of the majority system . Chairman of the House of Commons called the speaker. He is elected by the House ,among its members ,as a result of an agreement between the ruling and opposition parties. Speaker’s candidacy is approved by the monarch. The Speaker House of Commons is not involved in debate. He is obliged to behave in a politically impartial manner. He has no right to vote and participate in the debate. The House of Lords is a member of four kinds. Two of them take place in the House of Lords on their positions: Spiritual Lords and Law Lords (they are 12, they are assigned to perform judicial functions of the House).

There is a category of hereditary lords (peers) – the last time their number was reduced by law, as well as the lifetime of Lords (peers), appointed by the Prime Minister’s recommendation. Local authorities in the UK actualize their authority by the Parliament. Thus, each territorial unit has its own competence, determined by law. The legality of local government bodies, including compliance with the limits of authority, controlled by the courts.

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